Blog

  1. Genealogy Courses: End of An Era: Beginning of Another

    Having just returned the last mark sheet for my final student at the Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies, it is time for me to say farewell to my role as a tutor at the Institute. The last eight years have been rewarding ones for me and I have enjoyed assisting my students gain a deeper understanding of our subject and see several of them go on to become professional genealogists in their own right.

    It’s now time for me to concentrate on my own online Family History Course – The Celia Heritage Family History e-Course, which is now has over 70 students enrolled. I will also be concentrating on my new book,The Family Historian’s Guide to Cemeteries, Graveyards and Funerals.

    To find out more about the Celia Heritage Family History e-Course see http://www.heritagefamilyhistory.co.uk/ecourse

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    With my successful Higher Certificate students Barbara, Jane and Margaret at the IHGS prize giving July 2016

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    The Institute of Heraldic & Genealogical Studies, Canterbury

     

     

     

  2. Surnames & The Norman Conquest

    I was recently interviewed for the BBC’s The One Show  regarding the introduction of surnames into England at the time of the Norman Conquest. Here I expand on the short interview to give you a better idea of the complexities of this subject.

    At the time of the Norman Invasion, surnames were a new concept; unknown in England and in their infancy on the continent.  A very small minority of the Norman knights who came to England at this time actually had what we would term ‘surnames’; that is a hereditary name to be passed on to successive generations. All of these made reference to the name of the estates they came from in Normandy

    Today, surnames are one of the main ways by which we identify ourselves, but in the 11th century people in England were known by their first names and then a ‘byname’.  Bynames and surnames were very similar, but a byname was not passed down to the next generation. Both were based on similar ideas; identifying someone by the way he or she looked, their personality, occupation or the place where they lived, for example, a feature in the landscape or the name of an inn.

    Although William 1 was victorious at Hastings in October 1066 he was then faced by the arduous task of bringing the rest of the country under his control: no easy feat. One way of doing this was to re-distribute all the land in the country. From this point onwards all land technically belonged to the King and he in turn granted use of the land to men he believed would be loyal to him. These vassals did homage to their king and provided military service when required. In return the lords would require homage and services from those people who lived on their estates. Despite the fact that the new ruling classes were Norman, experts believe that one reason for the growing use of surnames among them was to strengthen their association with the land which they had been given. These were uncertain times and no-one felt secure!

    Surnames did not suddenly come into use overnight! While we can pinpoint their origin among the landed classes at this time, it was not until the 13th century that surnames started to come into general use. By the end of the 14th century most people had one, but the rate at which the practice of using a surname became the norm differed around the country and many surnames from this time did not remain stable. There are many examples of different ‘surnames’ being passed down to siblings throughout the ensuing centuries.

    The Normans did not just introduce surnames to England; they also brought a new pool of Norman-French personal names. If you have ever sighed in frustration over the plethora of people you find with the same name first and last name when researching your family history, you may thank the Normans! Over time, the wide-ranging stock of Old English and Anglo-Norse names such as Egbert, Wulfric, Harold, Ulf, Alfred and Edgar gradually fell out of favour with a few exceptions. They were replaced by the much more limited range of Anglo-Norman names such as Robert, Henry, Richard and William and later popular saints’ names such as John and Thomas. This had a knock-on effect on surnames since many surnames were to derive from Christian names spawning names such as  Roberts, Dickinson, Williamson, Johnson and the like.

    It is fascinating to study the names of the knights who came over with William both before and after the Battle of Hastings. It’s easy to see links between the names borne by those men and our modern-day surnames, but we must remember that in most cases the surnames we bear today would not have evolved for another 200 years or more. If your surname is Warren or Warrener, for example, you are likely to be descended from someone whose job it was to look after the rabbit warrens on the local lord’s estate, rather than from William de Warenne the companion of William the Conqueror! Many surnames appear to be of ‘French’ origin but they can be deceptive. My own surname, Heritage, is a good example. Most surname dictionaries define it as referring to someone who inherited land from an ancestor, rather than holding land from the lord. Most give its origin as ‘Old French’. Yet there is no similar surname on the continent, which is strange. A more likely interpretation is that it derives from the Old English word heretoga which originally meant a war leader, but by the time the surname evolved probably referred to a local community leader.

    Surnames in Ireland, Wales and Scotland have different histories and I will look at them another time. For more on the evolution of surnames and how to interpret them, my recommended reading is George Redmond’s book Surnames and Genealogy: An Introduction available second hand or in good libraries.

     

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  3. Old (& New) Family Photographs: Clues to Past and Future Family History

    I have been hooked on history, especially family history, since I was a child. For many years I concentrated on finding out more about my Mum’s side of the family, while my Heritage family history remained a mystery since my Dad never spoke about his family. All I knew was that he had a sister in New Zealand and had had an elder brother called Ron who was killed in WW11. His silence spurred me on to find out more.  One afternoon I secretly ventured into our attic to see what I could find. Among suitcases, Christmas decorations and old kitchen utensils, I found several boxes of old books, some of which had the name of Dad’s brother inscribed in the front. Even better, however, was the box stuffed full of memorial cards and old family photographs! Memorial cards were popular in the 19th and early 20th century, being sent to friends and family after someone had died. They usually provide vital information about the deceased including full name, date of death, age and burial place. The wodge of cards I found were later to provide many clues for building my family tree while the photographs were (like most old family photos!) all unlabelled and very frustrating.

    I sat for some time staring at the faces of the people in the pictures, wondering exactly how they were related to me and what their names were! Most of these were group photographs taken at weddings and a precious memory of each event, but also a record of so many of my relatives. When I was older I plucked up the courage to ask my Dad about his family and to my surprise he didn’t mind talking about it at all! (‘You never asked’, he said!) We spent an afternoon going through each of the photographs and he told me the name of all those relatives he remembered and I duly wrote them in pencil on the back. These days of course I use an acid free archival pen!

    Earlier this month I celebrated my 50th birthday! While on the one hand I wanted to celebrate successfully reaching such an advanced age, I was also determined to combine it with a family reunion, concentrating (due to space restrictions) on my maternal family. It seemed that the only time we all got together was at funerals. With all the invites sent, I waited impatiently to see who would be able to make it. A few people, sadly, could not make the chosen weekend, but twenty nine relatives could and, together with many friends and colleagues, we had a truly wonderful weekend blessed with ideal weather conditions for an outdoor party!

    Much interest was stimulated by the family tree chart, showing how we are all descended from James Postlethwaite Wilson and Mary Dickinson. Another success was my request that each relative bring a family photo of a common ancestor or relative. This revived many old memories as did a wonderful cine film of a 1957 family wedding. We spent hours re-running the five-minute film and identifying family members past and present! A few photographs remained tantalisingly unidentified or undated and for these I shall be engaging the services of Jayne Shrimpton to help identify them with her brilliant photo dating and analysis service. You can learn more about photo dating through Jayne’s many books, while she also writes a very informative column for Family Tree Magazine.

    Remembering future generations is just as important as looking back in time. Our ancestors often left a healthy paper trail for us to follow, but those who come after us may find it much more difficult as our trail becomes increasingly digitised. Will our digital photographs be passed on to later generations? Will they be labelled?

    My party was an excellent opportunity to make a photographic record of so many family members. Here I would like to thank Mia Bennett for spending much of the weekend snapping away in a series of informal but also formal group shots.  These are currently being printed out and labelled so that in times to come, everyone will know who we were and what we looked like! My favourite shot (below) was our attempt at a Victorian non-smiling pose. If you look closely you will see that not everyone managed not to smile but this picture, together with the other photos, are a great record of a wonderful day and will help provide a paper and digital record of our present-day family.

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  4. Donation of Hackney, Undertaker’s Records: James Recknell

     

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    I am delighted to have received a wonderful donation to my collection of death records! This is a set of undertaker’s records for the firm James Recknell & Co. This company operated from 46 Dalston Lane, Hackney for many years.  My initial read through these fascinating records shows that, while the business ran under the name of James Recknell & Co from 1886 to 1973, it was taken over by Albert Thomas Camfield in 1939. Albert later went into partnership with William Arthur Marr. William took over the business after Albert’s death in 1952 finally closing it in 1973. The site is now occupied by the undertakers’ business T. Cribbs.

    The freehold of the property at 46 Dalston Lane was owned by the family of Cecil Rhodes (founder of Rhodesia) and deeds show transfers of leases from Cecil’s brothers, Arthur Montague Rhodes and Bernard Maitland Rhodes, and later his nieces Georgia and Violet Rhodes, to James Recknell in 1932, Albert Camfield in 1939 and to William Marr in 1953.

    Of all the books in the collection, most fascinating are the undertakers’ order books and accounts giving details of funeral arrangements for hundreds of people, not just from Hackney but from places much further afield too. These also provide a useful insight into the work of an undertaker.

    You can read more about funeral records and also gravestones, burials and cemeteries in Chapters 2, 3 and 7 of my book Tracing Your Ancestors Through Death Records

    As I work my way through these precious records I will report further!

     

     

  5. Ready for WDYTYA Live 2016

    It’s that time of year again when the world of family history descends on the NEC in Birmingham for the Who Do You think You Are? Live show. This year promises to be as good as ever with a wide range of talks both in the Society of Genealogist’s workshops, in the DNA arena and also at various other venues around the exhibition hall.

    On Thursday and Friday I have two daily talks. The first, Unique and Essential Online Sources, takes place at 11.15  at The Genealogist’s Talk Stand  (306).  I shall be looking at some of the less commonly used but essential online sources, notably tithe records. Later in the day I will look at  how to make sure your family tree is accurate by enhancing your research technique. This is a 20 minute talk entitled The Golden Rules at 2.50 pm in the Education Zone.

    On Saturday my Unique and Essential Online Sources talk takes place at 2 pm followed by my talk on Tracing a 16th and 17th Century Family Tree at 3.15 pm in SOG 2. Here I will look at some of the sources that will help you find out more about your family and extend your pedigree in a period where information is often harder to come by.

    Meanwhile  my 2014 article on probate inventories at  has just been made available online by Family Tree Magazine and is free for all to read.

    I hope to see you there!

  6. Time to Improve Online Coverage Details

    It is my opinion that genealogy websites should provide full source details and coverage dates for each of their databases. They should also clearly state where a database is not yet complete.

    While there is a wealth of genealogical and historical data now available online courtesy of websites such as Findmypast, Ancestry, TheGenealogist and FamilySearch it is becoming increasingly difficult to accurately determine what exactly the various databases include and, in some cases where they came from, thanks to the inadequate or inconsistent detailing of their sources.

    This is caused by several factors but the main two are as follows.

    • A lack of information as to where the information came from and the coverage dates and any gaps within the coverage. Source data should be clearly visible for anyone using the database or at least for anyone who wishes to make the effort to check the details.

    • Inaccurate or unhelpful title names indicating complete coverage where coverage is not in fact complete are misleading.

    Let us take parish registers as an example. Neither Ancestry nor Findmypast has a complete county-by-county listing of what they hold. If I am searching for a missing baptism, burial or marriage I need to know exactly which parishes for a certain county or counties are available online and for which dates. Once I know this I can work out which are not and will potentially have to be searched in the record office. However, since neither company provides a county-by-county listing of which parish registers they hold it’s not easy to check this.

    I emailed Findmypast to ask if they had such a listing on their website as I know that they do sometimes issue such lists when new databases are released. This is the reply I received:

    ‘We are sorry but the website does not have a full list of coverage for the parish registers. You would have to check the search form for the parish and then carry out a blank search. Once you have done this you can change the results page by clicking the sort order at the top right – relevance. If you change this to ascending/descending you will see the years covered.’

    This seems a very long-winded way of established county coverage, especially when they must have such listings in existence! Ancestry collections are better detailed but they still have no means of checking county coverage in one go. Similarly, the Family Search Wiki is a quite good way of determining which parishes have online coverage, but I don’t believe this is entirely up-to-date and this is again not as useful as a county-by county- listing, as each parish has to be searched individually to determine online coverage.

    To my knowledge the only major commercial website to offer a county-by-county listing for parish registers is TheGenealogist which has its ‘List of all datasets’ at the bottom of its home and search pages. This provides a full list of which parish registers it offers and the coverage dates for each type of event and, for logged in users, this can also be accessed from the ‘Search’ tab, entitled ‘What’s included in my subscription?’ The list naturally covers all its other datasets too, not just parish registers, although some of the other categories are not as detailed as they should be.

    In order to prevent the online world of genealogical sources descending into chaos, I call upon the major genealogy companies to make it quite clear what information their datasets do and do not include. Surely this is not too much to ask?

    If you would like to join me in my campaign to encourage companies to improve the quality of their sourcing details and a new openness about which records they do and do not offer, please spread the word and encourage those interested in family history to email the companies concerned as well with this simple request. Let’s start with a request for full county-by-county parish register listings. Please share my blog with the genealogy world  and you can also follow my posts on the subject on Twitter @CeliaHeritage and Facebook. Your examples of inadequate source detailing and coverage are most welcome.

  7. The King Family of Ivychurch

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    The King gravestone temporarily raised last year

    As part of my one place study of Ivychurch in Kent (where I live) I have come to know some inhabitants of the churchyard better than others. Some, such as William Bates, whose grave I can see from my office window and who left 55 grandchildren behind him, seem to have descendants scattered all round the world and I have had several emails from them this year alone! Others grab my attention for other reasons, such as William Kennett King and his wife Louisa. During our churchyard survey last year theirs was one of two stones which had been recumbent for many years and which we managed to raise temporarily to read and photograph. It is an irony that since William and Louisa’s stone had fallen face down, the writing on it was well preserved. Had it fallen the other way this would not have been the case.
    William Kennett King was born in nearby Kenardington in 1867. Although his father was a labourer, William trained as a grocer and by the 1891 census appears in Appledore, just a few miles from Ivychurch, working as a grocer’s assistant. He married Louisa Orman from Ivychurch in 1894 and the couple had two children, Olive and Mabel. By 1911 William and his family had moved to Ivychurch where William was working in his own right as a grocer and draper while both he and Louisa were running the sub- post office at Kent House.
    Sadly their daughter Mabel died in 1919, aged 22, and just a few years later in 1922 both William and Louisa died – within four days of each other! The parish registers show that William was buried on 18th January and Louisa on the 23rd. Receiving an email from one of the King family members I learnt that rumours in the wider family told that Louisa had committed suicide. Seeking the truth behind this tale, I bought her death certificate. Although the death certificate of someone who took their own life will not necessarily record the death as ‘suicide’, an indicator would be that the coroner’s name would be given in the column for the informant and the death would have been subject to an inquest. The date and place of the inquest will also be noted on the certificate from 1875.
    The certificate showed that in actual fact Louisa died from diabetes, from which she had had for two years and four months. She fell into a coma 33 hours before she died and there cannot have been any suspicious circumstances, because there was not even a post mortem. She was 47 years old. It may be the case that once William died she lost the will to live and this may be where the rumours of suicide began.
    Before we leave the Kings, however, another lesson can be learnt, this one regarding accuracy of dates and ages on gravestones and in other sources. William’s age at death is given as 53 in the burial register, on the gravestone and also on the 1911 census. Checking the GRO birth index it was, however, 1867. His daughter Mabel, who is recorded on the same gravestone, has her age given as 23 years, although in the burial records it states 22 years. Checking the GRO birth index again it is probable that she had not reached her 23rd birthday when she died, as her birth was registered in the final quarter of 1896. It is almost certain that Mabel’s sister Olive raised the stone in memory of her family, possibly some years after their deaths because Mabel’s death is the last one mentioned despite the fact that she died first. Olive must have got her father’s age wrong and forgotten that her sister had not had her birthday in the year she died. So bear in mind that any source can be subject to inaccuracies.

  8. 1931 Census

    Many of you will know that the English and Welsh 1931 census returns were destroyed during WW11. What many people do not realise, however, is that this was not as a result of enemy action but caused by a ferocious fire which mysteriously broke out in a store room at the Office of Works one night in December 1942. The devastation was so great that, in the words of W. A. Derrick, the member of staff who reported the loss, it left behind ‘’nothing more than shapeless mounds of paper” making any attempt at salvage “useless”. The hearts of all family historians reading this will no doubt just have shuddered in horror!
    Mr Derrick worryingly also stated in his report (written to a colleague at the Central National Registration Office at Southport) “Will you also let us know where the enumeration books and plans of division relating to the 1921 census are stored. The schedules, as you are aware, were damaged by water at Leonard Street and have since been dried out and are scattered over various parts of Somerset House; but no plans or enumeration books were brought from Leonard Street and it is assumed that they were stored elsewhere.”
    Thankfully archival storage arrangements are now far superior to the arrangements of the 1940s and, putting it into some historical perspective, few people today would consider a documentary source of a mere twenty year’s age to be that important! However I still can’t help casting a swift backwards curse in time at the fate of these records and the fact that no-one thought to separate the census books from the householders’ schedules when they were stored away. At least the Scottish returns were housed safely in Edinburgh!

  9. Farewell to Cumbria

     

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    Appleby St Lawrence

    For the last week my husband and I have been relaxing on holiday post-WDYTYA! Our favourite place is Cumbria, where we both have long established roots and, although we were staying in Appleby-in-Westmorland, as usual we ended up roaming all over the county from East to West, North to South (Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire North of the Sands – with bit of Lancashire proper too!) – walking, relaxing and exploring churches and churchyards. Just what I needed after after all the work involved in preparing for WDYTYA.

    Celia

    Celia Heritage

    I also spend time in both Kendal and Carlisle Record Offices searching for my own ancestors in manorial records. My visit to Carlisle RO was my first since its relocation and I was very impressed! A lovely purpose built, yet tasteful, building with efficient knowledgeable staff and even car parking! A rare treat these days. My only gripe with Cumbria Archives is that if they had to reduce opening hours to four days a week why must all the record offices shut on the same day (Monday)? A real pain if you are visiting for a week and want to carry out some serious research. At least closing some on Mondays and some on Fridays, for example, would give the non-local researcher a better opportunity to utilise all his or her time.

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    Lamplugh churchyard

    Some other highlights of our holiday were churchyards at Lamplugh where many of the older gravestones are wonderfully preserved such as the one shown here for Margaret Burnyeat who died, aged 72, in 1724 ; also Moresby on the West Coast – an impressive church standing near the cliff edge looking across to Scotland and surrounded again by many well-preserved graves, many marking those killed in the local mines.

    We took our fond farewell of Cumbria a couple of days ago to return home to Kent. Hopefully we will be back ‘up North’ before too long.

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    Moresby churchyard